Does Li-Fi add a new dimension to the smart-city interoperability discussion? I would suspect that most reading this would agree that interoperability in smart cities is costly. In case you need to be convinced, here is some research on the subject. In looking at just one little tidbit from Machina Research it suggests that by 2025, cities could spend an extra $341 billion by adopting a fragmented versus a standardized approach to IoT (Internet of Things) solution deployment. On the other hand, a standards-based IoT environment could improve innovation and adoption of smart-city applications, resulting in a 27% increase in the number of connected devices within smart cities.